In Myanmar formerly Burma , trade in raw commodities goes back centuries. Under colonial rule, the export of minerals, timber and opium expanded enormously, placing unprecedented strain on local resources. The integration of regions north of the Irrawaddy River basin into the Burmese colonial state drastically increased economic integration between upland areas rich in natural resources and larger flows of European and Chinese capital. Today, despite generating billions of dollars in revenue , these regions are some of the poorest in the country and are home to widespread human rights abuses and environmental disasters.
The human cost of the diamond trade in West and South Africa is relatively well-known. This mining serves a global demand for these minerals and gems.
The intensive mining operations required to deliver diamonds and other precious stones or minerals to world markets degrades the land, reduces air quality and pollutes local water sources. The result is an overall loss of biodiversity and significant environmental impacts on human health. From to , exploratory digging along the Vaal, Harts and Orange rivers in South Africa prompted a large-scale diamond rush that saw a massive influx of miners and speculators pour into the region in search of riches.
By , the diamond industry in South Africa had transformed into a monopoly, with De Beers Consolidated Mines becoming the sole producer. New transportation technologies and economic growth fuelled by the industrial revolution created a global demand for African exports, including gemstones and minerals that required extensive mining operations to extract. From to , the diamond industry in Sierra Leone played a crucial role in shaping and defining colonial governmental strategies and scientific expertise throughout the region.
Nearby Liberia was never formally colonized and was established as a homeland for freed African-American slaves. This loan was the beginning of direct economic control over Liberian affairs. A report suggests that Africa is on the verge of a fresh mining boom driven by demand in North America, India, and China that will only worsen existing ecological crises. Consumer demand for minerals such as tantalum, a key component for the production of electronics, lies at the heart of current mining operations. Our understanding of colonialism is often limited to simple ideas about what we think colonialism looked like in the past.
These ideas impede our ability to identify the complex ways that colonialism shaped and continues to shape the uneven power structures of the 21st century, as anthropologist and historian Ann Laura Stoler argues in her book, Duress.
Unequal power relations between and within developed and developing countries continue to define the causes and consequences of climate change. A clearer understanding of where these problems came from is a necessary first step towards solving them. While people debate whether climate change should be taken seriously from the comfort of their air-conditioned homes, hundreds of thousands of people are already suffering the consequences. A contemporary Robinsonade — York, York.
The polar oceans and global climate — Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. Mining is a highly destructive endeavour towards our environment but demand for gems and minerals is non-stop; early colonial relationships continue to define these industries. Joseph McQuade , University of Toronto. Clear-cutting rainforests for industrial rubber Since the 15th century, the Indian Ocean has been the site of global trade.
Since it had now become socially acceptable to postpone pregnancy even while married, women had the luxury of thinking about other things, like education and work. Also, due to electrification women's work around the house became easier leaving them with more time to be able to dedicate to school or work.
Due to the multiplier effect, even if some women were not blessed with access to the pill or electrification, many followed by the example of the other women entering the work force for those reasons. The Quiet Revolution is called such because it was not a "big bang" revolution; rather, it happened and is continuing to happen gradually.
Women tend to have different occupational hazards and health issues than men in the workplace. Women get carpal tunnel syndrome , tendonitis , anxiety disorders , stress , respiratory diseases, and infectious diseases due to their work at higher rates than men.
The reasons for these differences may be differences in biology or in the work that women are performing. Women's higher rates of job-related stress may be due to the fact that women are often caregivers at home and do contingent work and contract work at a much higher rate than men.
Women are at lower risk for work-related death than men. However, personal protective equipment is usually designed for typical male proportions, which can create hazards for women who have ill-fitting equipment. Research is ongoing into occupational hazards that may be specific to women. Of particular interest are potential environmental causes of breast cancer and cervical cancer. Women are also at higher risk for occupational stress , which can be caused by balancing roles as a parent or caregiver with work.
Below is a list of encyclopedia articles that detail women's historical involvement in various occupations. See Category:Female pirates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. See also: Gender pay gap , Glass ceiling , and Sexual harassment. Gapminder World.
American Council of Learned Societies. April 7, Philippine Daily Inquirer. Inquirer Global Nation. Retrieved May 12, People on the Move: An atlas of migration. University of California Press. United Nations. Retrieved May 15, Categorically Unequal. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.
Acta Sociologica. June 16, Women across cultures: A global perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Center for American Women and Politics. Svenska Dagbladet in Swedish.
Retrieved Retrieved 22 September Opting out and opting in: understanding the complexities of women's career transitions. Career Development International.
Women and Men at Work. California: Pine Forge Press. The Journal of Development Studies. Organization Articles. Work, Employment and Society. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. The Economic Times. Promises I Can Keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Social Service Review. Journal of Economic Growth. United Nations Publications. Journal of Population Economics.
Victorian Women. London: John Murray Publishers Ltd. L: "The Social and Cultural Life of the s", p. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
H: "Life in the Age of Enterprise", pp. Capricorn Books, London: Verso. Basic Books. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. November The American Economic Review. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 21 January June 19, Women in Africa. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. Women in Asia. Book Category Asia portal. Women in North America. Women in South America.